Valve closure responses of the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea exposed to cadmium and zinc. Titley-O'Neal et al.
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CAC en. Long et al. USB2 en. Auffret et al. A multiparametric approach for monitoring immunotoxic responses in mussels from contaminated sites in Western Mediterranea. Piccardo et al. Chalmers et al. Cryptosporidium parvum in environmental samples in the Sligo area, Republic of Ireland: a preliminary report. Geffard et al. Assessment of the bioavailability and toxicity of sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals applied to Crassostrea gigas embryos and larvae. Kiffney et al. Paredes et al. If the material has been adapted instead of reproduced from the original RSC publication "Reproduced from" can be substituted with "Adapted from".
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For Members. For Librarians. RSS Feeds. Chemistry World. Nevertheless, some chromatograms showed peaks of the unknown antimony species that originated from certain stable antimony complexes. The research into the contents of the arsenic, antimony, and chromium chemical species is very popular. The same situation is observed for the analyses of thallium speciation forms in the environmental samples [ 70 , 71 ].
The flow injection analysis coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry FIA-AAS is another technique often applied in the thallium speciation [ 73 ]. However, the most popular, in the case of thallium, are speciation methods of combining extraction procedures with very sensitive detection techniques [ 74 ]. In this study, a simple and novel sequential mixed micelle cloud point extraction procedure for the separation of Tl species in environmental water samples for their determination by ICP-MS, without using any additional salts or chelating agents was used. To improve the preconcentration factor, ultrasound was used for back-extraction of Tl III.
Other authors studied thallium speciation in river waters, using Chelex resin and atomic absorption spectroscopy technique [ 39 ]. The high chromium content in bottom sediments is often caused by the close vicinity of tanneries, steelworks, or galvanic shops. The tanning industry is a typical source of Cr III , including mainly sulphates [ 34 ].
Under the redox and slightly oxidising conditions, Cr VI is reduced to Cr III within the period that ranges between a few minutes and a few days. Cr III is the chromium chemical species that is most often adsorbed on bottom sediments. It depends on pH and occurs more easily under acidic conditions. In Rybnickie Lake, the high Cr VI content was observed in the bottom sediment, which was most probably related to the phytoplankton bloom.
Phytoplankton is able to accumulate, i. The organic matter that lands on the lake bottom enriches the Rybnickie Lake bottom sediments with Cr VI. In the study [ 69 ], the authors focused on the sample preparation methods.
Inorganic arsenic compounds are the most toxic arsenic forms that occur naturally in the environment. The arsenate toxic effect results from the mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling. The research into the contents of the arsenic chemical species in Lake Moira, which is one of the biggest lakes in Canada, indicated the complexity of the undergoing processes.
The total arsenic concentration in the bottom sediments was determined after acid digestion. The result was many times higher than the background value. It was observed that the As III concentration decreased with the increasing depth of the particular bottom sediment layers. The authors suggest that As III was released from the surface layer of the bottom sediments in the redox or decomposition process. The research points to the complexity of the forming organic species of arsenic and the necessity to investigate fresh, not dried, and bottom sediments [ 59 ].
In another study, 0. The research into the bottom sediments of the Godavari River Estuary the third biggest river in India shows that the increase in the salinity of the water column above the bottom sediments also affects the arsenic distribution and speciation in the sediments. The concentrations of arsenic and antimony in bottom sediments are often correlated.
The authors point to the important adsorption influence on the arsenic and antimony concentrations in the bottom sediments. They also reveal that the distribution and migration of arsenic and antimony in the water bottom sediment system were similar under the oxygen conditions observed in the river. When taking into consideration the redox conditions in the river, it is not surprising that As V and Sb V forms dominated. The coefficients for arsenic and antimony in water and bottom sediments were similar approximately 4.
Most investigations concern bottom sediment fractionation [ 78 ] and extraction of particular chemical species [ 79 , 80 ]. Table 1 presents the application of LC-ICP-MS techniques in chromium, arsenic, antimony, and thallium speciation in water and sediment samples. Even though speciation analytics has been rapidly developing over the last 30 years, it is still a relatively new field of the analytical chemistry. Its further progress depends on many factors, such as the new sample preparation methods, separation and detection techniques, and the availability of the new certified reference materials.
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The element speciation has more and more applications in various scientific areas. Both the elaboration of the measurement methods and usage of the research results should be interdisciplinary. The speciation investigations call for the mutual cooperation of chemical analysts with biologists and toxicologists [ 46 ]. Hyphenated methods provide new research opportunities [ , ]. Their main advantages are extremely low detection and quantification limits, insignificant influence of the interferences in determinations, and very high determination precision and repeatability.
Obviously, they also have limitations, such as the high price and complexity of the apparatus. Consequently, they are not normally available and used in the laboratories. Using hyphenated techniques requires full understanding of the analytical methodologies and apparatus operations. The systems are expensive and are used for scientific studies rather than routine analyses.
Nonetheless, the development of these methods is becoming more and more important, which is corroborated by the growing number of applications and studies [ ]. The author declares that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Int J Anal Chem. Published online Mar Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract Chemical speciation is a very important subject in the environmental protection, toxicology, and chemical analytics due to the fact that toxicity, availability, and reactivity of trace elements depend on the chemical forms in which these elements occur. Introduction The beginning of the 21st century is a time of great challenges in the analytical chemistry, which also includes the environmental analytics.
Speciation by Classical Methods or Rather by Using Hyphenated Techniques The information obtained from toxicological tests and research into the influence of the specific chemical species on living organisms requires continuous lowering of the analyte detection limits to extremely low concentration levels. Even though speciation analytics is relatively expensive, it plays an important role in the following fields: research into biochemical cycles of selected chemical compounds, determination of the toxicity and ecotoxicity of selected elements, quality control of food products and pharmaceuticals, control of technological processes, health risk assessment, and clinical analytics In order to be able to continuously lower the detection and quantification limits, various separation and detection methods are combined.
Sample Preparation for Analyses The analyte determination is one of the last stages of the analytical procedure that includes sampling, sample preservation, transport, storage, preparation for analyses, determination, and result processing. Application of Chromium, Arsenic, Antimony, and Thallium Speciation Analyses in Water Samples Generally, it is known that the contents of chromium, arsenic, antimony, and thallium are very low in the uncontaminated samples.
Application of Chromium, Arsenic, Antimony, and Thallium Speciation Analyses in Bottom Sediment Samples The high chromium content in bottom sediments is often caused by the close vicinity of tanneries, steelworks, or galvanic shops.
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Open in a separate window. Conclusions Even though speciation analytics has been rapidly developing over the last 30 years, it is still a relatively new field of the analytical chemistry. Conflict of Interests The author declares that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. References 1. Cornelis R.